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The Hairy Ape

Ahuja, Chaman. Tragedy, modern temper and O’Neill. NY: Macmillan, 1984, 61-66

Andreach, Robert J. ‘O’Neill’s use of Dante in The Fountain and The Hairy Ape.’ Modern Drama 10 1967 48-56 [M313]

Banerjee, Rubina. ‘The Hairy Ape: a study of depression.’ Zenith 7 2000-01 26-27

Baum, Bernard. ‘Tempest and Hairy Ape: the literary incarnation of mythos.’ Modern Language Quarterly 14 1953 258-73 [M336]

Ben-Zvi, Linda. ‘Susan Glaspell and Eugene O’Neill.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 6 ii 1982 21-29 [S8]; ‘Susan Glaspell and Eugene O’Neill: the imagery of gender.’  Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 10 i 1986 22-27 [S8]

Berlin, Normand. Eugene O’Neill. London: Macmillan, 1982, 64-69

-----. O’Neill’s Shakespeare. Ann Arbor: Univ. of Michigan Pr., 1993, 42-46

Bigeard, Guy. L’écrivain témoin de son  temps. Besançon: Demontrond, 1980, 235-42: ‘Une incursion vers le drame moderne américain: O’Neil et le Singe Velu

Bogard, Travis. Contour in time: the plays of Eugene O’Neill. Rev. ed. NY: Oxford UP, 1988, 239-52

Bowles, Patrick. ‘The Hairy Ape as existential allegory.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 3 i 1979 2-3 [S12]

Broussard, Louis. American drama: contemporary allegory from Eugene O’Neill to Tennessee Williams. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Pr., 1962, 9-38: ‘O’Neill’ (14-23 on the play)

Brugnoli, Annalisa. ‘Eulogy of the ape: paradigms of alterity and identity in Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 33 2012 43-55

Callens, Johan. ‘Negotiating class and gender differences in the Wooster Group’s production of The Hairy Ape.’ Pp 149-63 in Chantal Cornut-Gentille D’Arcy, ed. Culture and power, IV: Cultural confrontations. Zaragosa: Departamento de Filología Inglesa, 1999; ‘“Dat’s us”: de Wooster Group speelt The Hairy Ape.’ Pp 169-86 in Callens et al., eds. Peilingen: teksten over proza, poezie, en podiumkunsten, ter nagedachtenis van Dina Hellemans. Brussels: VUB UP, 1999

Cardullo, Bert. [Robert Cardullo]. ‘Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape.’ Explicator 68 2010 258-60

-----. Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape: text and context. Cologne: Lambert Academic Publishing, 2008. 114 pp (hard to find)

-----. ‘Global futurism, divine comedy, Greek tragedy, and ... The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 29 2007 7-20      [unspaced dots are from the title]

Choi, Y.-J. ‘The American playwright’s social response between the wars: centering on Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape, The Great God Brown and Strange Interlude.’ Journal of Modern British and American Drama (Seoul) 15 iii 2002 199-231

Chothia, Jean. Forging a language: a study of the plays of Eugene O’Neill. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1979, 74-78

-----. ‘Theatre language: word and image in The Hairy Ape.’ Pp 31-40 in Maufort [S84]

Chura, Patrick J. ‘Ernest Poole’s The Harbor as a source for O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 33 2012 24-42

-----. ‘“Vital contact”: Eugene O’Neill and the working class.’ Twentieth Century Literature 49 2003 520-46 (529-37 on the play) ; repr. on pp 9-30 in Herrmann

Clark, Marden J. ‘Tragic effect in The Hairy Ape.’ Modern Drama 10 1968 372-82 [M336]

Comarnescu, Petru. O’Neill Õi renaÕterea tragediei. Cluj: Dacia, 1986, 101-07: ‘The Hairy Ape (MaimuÛa p|oas|)’

Conklin, Robert. ‘The expression of character in O’Neill’s The Emperor Jones and The Hairy Ape.’ West Virginia University Philological Papers 39 1993 101-07 [S16]

Connolly, Thomas F. ‘The Hairy Ape in the context of early 20th century American modernism.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 25 2001 76-79

-----. ‘Neither fallen angel nor risen ape: desentimentalizing Robert Smith’ Pp 145-61 in Bennett

Cotsell, Michael. The theater of trauma: American modernist drama and the psychological struggle for the American mind, 1900-1930. NY: Lang, 2005, 222-25

Cronin, Harry C. Eugene O’Neill, Irish and American: a study in  cultural context. NY: Arno, 1976, 74-81

Das, Prabhat N. ‘The alienated ape.’ Literary Half-Yearly 11 i 1970 53-69

-----. The captive and the free: essays in criticism and aesthetics. Cuttack: Lark, 1969, 118-38: ‘Expressionism  and The Hairy Ape’ (from  Indian Journal of English Studies 9 1968 30-48)

Davis, Rocio G. ‘Two experiments in symbolic expressionism: Eugene O’Neill’s The Emperor Jones and The Hairy Ape.’ Pp 601-11 in Manuel Losada-Goya et al., eds. De Baudelaire a Lorca: acercamiento a la modernidad literaria, I-III. Kassel: Reichenberger, 1995

Egri, Péter. ‘“Belonging” lost: alienation and dramatic form  in Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape.’ Acta Litteraria Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae   24 i 1982 157-90 [S21]; repr. on pp 77-111 in Martine

-----. The birth of American tragedy. Budapest: Tankönyvkiadó, 1988, 48-71: ‘The sociology and metaphysics of alienation: . . . The Hairy Ape

Eisen, Kurt. The inner strength of opposites: O’Neill’s novelistic drama and  the melodramatic imagination. Athens: Univ. of Georgia Pr., 1994, 67-72 and see index

Engel, Edwin A. The haunted heroes of Eugene O’Neill. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1953, 54-60

Falk, Doris V. Eugene O’Neill and the tragic tension: an interpretive study of the plays. NY: Gordian Pr., 1958, 27-35

Farhoudi, Houriyeh, & Yaser Zolfaghari. ‘Under the shade of ideology: a Marxist study of Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 35 2014 161-76

Fleming, Robert E. ‘O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape as a source for [Wright’s] Native Son.’ CLA Journal 28 1985 434-43 [S24]

Floyd, Virginia. The plays of Eugene O’Neill: a new assessment. NY: Ungar, 1985, 237-48

-----. ‘The search for self in The Hairy Ape: an exercise in futility.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 1 iii 1978 4-7 [S24]

‘Focus on The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 1 iii 1978 2-12: brief papers by Michael Hinden, Virginia Floyd, Ann D. Hughes, and Horst Frenz

Frazer, Winifred L. The theme of loneliness in  modern American drama. Gainesville: Univ. of Florida Pr., 1960, 125-34

Frenz, Horst. ‘Three European productions of The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 1 iii 1978 10-12 [S26] (early productions)

Gabbard, Lucina P. ‘At the zoo: from  O’Neill to Albee.’ Modern Drama 19 1976 365-74 [S26]

Gomez, Andrea A. ‘Modern tragedies.’ Research Journal (St. Louis Univ.) 19 i 1988 35-84 [S29]

Gump, Margaret. ‘From  ape to man and from  man to ape.’ Kentucky Foreign Language Quarterly 4 1957 268-82 [M337]

Guruprasad, Thakur. ‘Experimentation with dramatic technique in O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape.’ Indian Journal of English Studies 14 1973 44-54 [S30]

Hinden, Michael. ‘Ironic use of myth in The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 1 iii 1978 2-4 [S33]

Hooti, Noorbakhsh, & N. Maleki. ‘Terror and ambivalence of the human soul in Oneills The Emperor Jones and the hairy ape.’ [sic] Global Journal of Humanities 7, i-ii 2008 9-18

Hughes, Ann D. ‘Biblical allusions in The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 1 iii 1978 7-9 [S34]

Jerz, Dennis G. Technology in American drama, 1920-1950: soul and society in the age of the machine. Westport, CT: Greenwood Pr., 2003, 20-22: ‘Industrial isolation in The Hairy Ape’; 113-22: ‘Technology and brutality: A Streetcar Named Desire integrating the technological themes of The Hairy Ape

Jilthe, M. F. ‘The trauma of belonging on [sic] The Hairy Ape.’ Pp 163-70 in Prasad [S101]

Jiri, Vera. ‘Another look at The Hairy Ape.’ Recorder 3 i 1989 141-43 [S35]

Johnson, Bob. ‘“An upthrust into barbarism”: coal, trauma, and origins of the modern self, 1885-1951.’ Journal of American Culture 33 2010 265-79 (275-78 on the play)

Juhl, Peter. ‘Eugene O’Neills The Hairy Ape: Bemerkungen zu Sinn und Struktur des Dramas.’ Pp 235-53 in Edgar Lohner & Rudolf Haas, eds. Theater und Drama in Amerika: Aspekte und Interpretationen. Berlin: Schmidt, 1978

Jurich, Joseph. ‘Jack London and The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 3 iii 1980 6-8 [S36] (the play and Martin Eden)

Jurich, Marilyn. ‘Men of iron, beasts of clay: the confluence of folk-tale and drama in “Joe Magarac” and The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 12 ii 1988 38-45 [S36]

Keane, Christopher. ‘Blake and O’Neill: a prophecy.’ Blake Studies 2 ii 1970 23-34 [M337]

Kehl, D. G. ‘The “big subject” in The Hairy Ape: a new look at scene five.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 17 1993 39-43 [S37]

Keller, James R. ‘Eugene O’Neill’s stokehole and Edmund Spenser’s cave of Mammon.’ English Language Notes 31 iii 1994 66-73 [S37]

-----. ‘Rage against order: O’Neill’s Yank and Milton’s Satan.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 17 1993 45-52 [S37]

Köhler, Klaus. Eugene O’Neill’s antiheroes and their major precursors from late nineteenth to early twentieth century European drama. Dresden: Progressmedia, 2003, 48-55

Lawson, Lewis A. ‘Yank Smith’s fall: a Sartrean reading of The Hairy Ape.’ Pp 163-73 in Ortwin de Graef et al., eds. Sense and transcendence: essays in honour of Herman Servotte. Louvain: Leuven UP, 1995 [S103]

Lewis, Ward B. Eugene O’Neill: the German reception of America’s first dramatist. NY: Lang, 1984, 34-43

-----. ‘Politics and a proletarian tragedy: a comparative analysis of the reception of Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape in Germany and the United States.’ Pp 59-69 in Liu [S104]

Llácer, Eusebio V. ‘O’Neill’s The Emperor Jones and The Hairy Ape: the alienation of the American anti-hero.’ Journal of American Studies of Turkey 18 2003 35-48 <>

Long, Chester C. The role of nemesis in the structure of selected plays by Eugene O’Neill. The Hague: Mouton, 1968, 75-96

Lueger, Michael. ‘Women in three film adaptations of O’Neill.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 32 2010 134-47 (135-38 on the film of the play)

Massa, Ann. ‘Intention and effect in The Hairy Ape.’ Modern Drama 31 1988 41-51 [S42]

McIlvaine, Robert. ‘Crane’s Maggie: a source for The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 2 iii 1979 8-10 [S44]

Miliora, Maria T. Narcissism, the family, and  madness: a self-psychological study of Eugene O’Neill and his plays. NY: Lang, 2000, 78-82 (from ‘A self-psychological study of dehumanization in Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape.’ Clinical Social Work Journal 24 1996 415-27 [S45])

Mirlas, León. O’Neill y el teatro contemporáneo. Buenos Aires: Sudamericana, 1950, 93-102: ‘El mono velludo

Misra, K. S. Modern  tragedies and Aristotle’s theory. New Delhi: Vikas, 1981, 185-206: ‘O’Neill’s Hairy Ape’ [S110]

Müller, Kurt. Konventionen  und Tendenzen der Gesellschaftskritik im expressionistischen Drama der zwanziger Jahre. Frankfurt: Lang, 1977, 97-127: ‘Die Behandlung der Rassen- und Klassenproblematik in den expressionistischen Stücken O’Neills’ (115-27 on the play); ‘Vorurteils- und Stereotypenkritik in The Emperor Jones and The Hairy Ape: Aspekte der Wirkungsstruktur in den expressionistische Dramen Eugene O’Neills.’ Pp 48-65 in Halfmann

Murray, Keat. ‘O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape and Rodin’s The Thinker.’ Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 19 i-ii 1998 108-15 [S47]

Nickel, John. ‘Racial degeneration and The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 22 1998 33-40 [S48]

Pacheco, Gilda. ‘Hairy Ape de Eugène O’Neill: un enfoque diferente.’ Káñina 12 i 1988 103-07

Peel, Sylvia T. ‘Mildred shivers.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 16 i 1992 142 [S50]

Pfister, Joel. Staging depth: Eugene O’Neill and the politics of psychological discourse. Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Pr., 1995, 115-21 and see index

Plunka, Gene A. ‘Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape and the legacy of Andrew Carnegie.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 23 1999 31-48

Quintero, José. ‘Directing a radio production of Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape.’ Ed. Travis Bogard. Theatre Journal 43 1991 341-59 [S53] (introduction by editor, 337-40)

Rama Murthy, V. American expressionistic drama; containing analyses of three outstanding American plays, O’Neill: The Hairy Ape; Tennessee Williams: The Glass Menagerie; Miller: Death of a Salesman. Delhi: Doaba, 1970, 23-47

Robinson, James A. ‘The masculine primitive and The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 19 1995 95-109 [S55]

Rollins, Ronald G. ‘O’Casey, O’Neill and expressionism  in The Silver Tassie.’ Bucknell Review 10 1962 364-69

-----. ‘O’Casey, O’Neill and the expressionism  in Within the Gates.’ West Virginia University Philological Papers 13 1961 76-81 [M338]

Rossetti, Gina M. Imagining the primitive in naturalist and modernist literature. Columbia: Univ. of Missouri Pr., 2006, 66-89: ‘The primitive as the brute working class’

Roy, Emil. ‘Eugene O’Neill’s The Emperor Jones and The Hairy Ape as mirror plays.’ Comparative Drama 2 1968 21-31 [M305]

Rundle, Erika. ‘The hairy ape’s humanist hell: theatricality and evolution in O’Neill’s “Comedy of Ancient and Modern Life.”’ Eugene O’Neill Review 30 2008 48-144

-----. ‘“The monkey problem”: notes on staging The Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 31 2009 122-49 (the 2009 Goodman Theatre performance)

Saqqaf, Abdulaziz Y. ‘The nature of conflict in The Hairy Ape.’ Journal of English (San’a Univ.) 1 1975 77-84 [S57]

Sastri, P. S. ‘One approach to O’Neill.’ Pp 55-59 in Sujit Mukherjee & D. V. K. Raghavacharyulu, eds. Indian essays in American Literature. Bombay: Popular Pr., 1969

Seidel, Margot. Bibel und Christentum im dramatischen Werk Eugene O’Neills. Frankfurt: Lang, 1984, 180-85

Shafer, Yvonne. Performing O’Neill: conversations with actors and directors. NY: St. Martin’s Pr., 2001, 24-30

Sheaffer, Louis. O’Neill, son  and artist. Boston: Little, Brown, 1973, 77-81 and see index

Siegmund, Gerald. ‘Voice masks: subjectivity, America, and the voice in the theatre of the Wooster Group.’ Pp 167-78 in Johan Callens, ed. The Wooster Group and its traditions. Brussels: Lang, 2004

Singh, Avadhesh K. The plays of Eugene O’Neill: a study in myths and symbols. New Delhi: Creative Publishers, 1991, 81-86 (from ‘Mythical elements in Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape.’ Indian Scholar 12 ii 1990 25-33 [S61])

Singh, Tejpal. Eugene O’Neill: quest for reality in his plays. New Delhi: National Book, 1987, 45-54

Singh, Veena. ‘O’Neill’s Yank and Jones—the dislocated characters.’ Panjab University Research Bulletin: Arts 18 i 1987 45-54 [S61]

Styan, J. L. Modern drama in theory and practice, III: Expressionism and epic theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1981, 97-111: ‘Expressionism  in America: O’Neill’ (103-08 on the play)

Tiusanen, Timo. O’Neill’s scenic images. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1968, 113-28: ‘Brief encounter: The Hairy Ape

Törnqvist, Egil. A drama of souls: studies in O’Neill’s super-naturalistic technique. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1969, 48-50, 158-60, 186-89, 219-21, and see index

Valgemae, Mardi. Accelerated grimace: expressionism  in the American drama of the 1920s. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1972, 27-40: ‘Eugene O’Neill’ (30-35 on the play)

Viswanathan, R. ‘The Jungle Books and O’Neill.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 11 ii 1987 3-7 [S66]

Vyzga, Bernard. ‘Designing The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Newsletter 1 iii 1980 15-16 [S68]

Wainscott, Ronald H. Staging O’Neill: the experimental years, 1920-1934. New Haven, CT: Yale UP, 1988, 107-23

Walker, Julia A. ‘“De new dat’s moiderin’ de old”: Oedipal struggle as class conflict in Eugene O’Neill’s The Hairy Ape.’ Pp 19-30 in Arthur Gewirtz & James J. Kolb, eds. Art, glitter, and glitz: mainstream playwrights and popular theatre in 1920s America. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004

-----. Expressionism and modernism in the American theatre: bodies, voices, words. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005, 123-54: ‘The “unconscious autobiography” of Eugene O’Neill’ (how the play and The Emperor Jones ‘encode’ the ‘psychodynamics’ of the autobiographical plays; 137-54 on the play)

-----. ‘Rooms, voices, words: modern drama and the problem of the literary.’ Pp 68-80 in Jani Scandura & Michael Thurston, eds. Modernism, inc.: body, memory, capital. NY: NY UP, 2001 (73-77 on The Hairy Ape)

Westgate, J. Chris. ‘Stumbling amid the ruins: Yank’s absurd inheritance in The Hairy Ape.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 25 2001 5-11

Whitlatch, Michael. ‘Eugene O’Neill and class consciousness in The Hairy Ape.’ Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 35 1987 223-27 [S70]

Wilmer, Steve E. ‘Censorship and ideology: Eugene O’Neill (The Hairy Ape).’ Cycnos 9 1992 53-60

Winkelmann, Sabine. Intermedialität in Eugene O’Neills Dramen: The Emperor Jones, The Hairy Ape und The Great God Brown. Würzberg: Königshausen & Neumann, 2004. 187 pp (publ. diss.)

Xiao-ping, Zhou. ‘Absurdity theme in Eugene O’Neill’s middle period works: take The Hairy Ape as an example.’ Studies in Literature and Language 1 ii 2010 30-351 ii 2010 30-35

Zapf, Hubert. ‘O’Neill’s Hairy Ape and the reversal of Hegelian dialectics.’ Modern Drama 31 1988 35-40 [S71]

Zhao, Guodong. ‘The psychological predicament of contemporary people-analyzing the symbolic meaning of cage and God in The Hairy Ape.’ Theory and Practice in Language Studies 1 ii 2011 163-66



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