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Expressionism and Religious Allegory

Al-Shamma, James. ‘Worshiping the black sun: Melancholy in Eugene O’Neill and Sarah Ruhl.’ Eugene O’Neill Review 35 2014 61-78 (Ruhl is a touted playwright)

Blackburn, Clara. ‘Continental influences on Eugene O’Neill’s expressionistic drama.’ American Literature 13 1941 109-33 [M164]

Broussard, Louis. American drama: contemporary allegory from Eugene O’Neill to Tennessee Williams. Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Pr., 1962, 9-38: ‘O’Neill’ [M110]

Brugnoli, Annalisa. ‘Fighting archangels: the deus absconditis in Eugene O’Neill’s dialogue with the Bible, Nietzsche and Jung.’ Pp142-53 in Eisenhauer

Busch, C. Trent, & Orton A. Jones. ‘Immortality enough: the influence of Strindberg on the expressionism  of Eugene O’Neill.’ Southern Speech Journal 33 1967 129-39

Cawthon, Daniel. ‘Eugene O’Neill: progenitor of a new religious drama.’ Theatre and Religion 1 1992 21-30 [S14]; available on the web at <>

Goldoni, Annalisa. ‘L’espressionismo nel teatro americano (1920-1930).’ Studi Americani 13 1967 377-416 (385-94: ‘O’Neill: espressionismo metafisico’)

Grace, Sherrill E. Regression and apocalypse: studies in North American literary expressionism. Toronto: Univ. of Toronto Pr., 1989, 82-116: ‘Eugene O’Neill: the American Georg Kaiser’ [S97]

Kaes, Anton. Expressionismus in Amerika: Rezeption und Innovation. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 1975, 74-87: ‘Expressionismus und der frühe O’Neill’; 102-07: ‘Charakterisierung bei O’Neill und Kaiser’

Maufort, Marc. ‘The legacy of  the American romance in O’Neill’s expressionist drama.’ English Studies 5 1994 32-45 [S43]

Miller, Jordan Y. ‘Expressionism: the waste land enacted.’ Pp 439-54 in Warren G. French, ed. The twenties. Deland, FL: Everett / Edwards, 1975 [S110]

Moin-ul-Islam. ‘O’Neill and the expressionist techniques of drama.’ Journal of Research: Humanities (Univ. of  the Punjab) 14 i-ii 1979 59-69 [S45]

Mounier, Catherine. ‘L’expressionisme dans l’oeuvre d’Eugene O’Neill.’ Pp 331-40 in Denis Bablet & Jean Jacquot, eds. L’expressionisme dans le théâtre européen. Paris: Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 1971

Müller, Kurt. Konventionen  und Tendenzen der Gesellschaftskritik im  expressionistischen amerikanischen Drama der zwanziger Jahre. Frankfurt: Lang, 1977, 97-127: ‘Die Behandlung der Rassen- und Klassenproblematik in den expressionistischen Stücken O’Neills’

-----. ‘The rise and fall of expressionism as an innovative force in American drama of the 1920s.’ Pp 117-38 in Christiane Schlote & Peter Zenziger, eds. New beginnings in twentieth-century theatre and drama. Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag, 2003 (passim on O’Neill)

Murray, Edward. The cinematic imagination: writers and the motion pictures. NY: Ungar, 1972, 16-35: ‘Eugene O’Neill, expressionism, and film’

Poupeye, Camille. Les dramaturgos exotiques. Brussels: Renaissance d’Occident, 79-101: ‘Le
théâtre américain: Eugene O’Neill’

Styan, J. L. Modern drama in theory and practice, III: Expressionism and epic theatre. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1981, 97-111: ‘Expressionism  in America: O’Neill’ [S125]

Valgemae, Mardi. Accelerated grimace: expressionism  in the American drama of the 1920s. Carbondale: Southern Illinois UP, 1972, 27-40: ‘Eugene O’Neill’; and see index [M153] (from ‘O’Neill and German expressionism.’ Modern Drama 10 1967 111-23 [M213])

Walker, Julia A. Expressionism and modernism in the American theatre: bodies, voices, words. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2005, 123-54: ‘The “unconscious autobiography” of Eugene O’Neill’ (how The Emperor Jones and The Hairy Ape ‘encode’ the ‘psychodynamics’ of the autobiographical plays)

Zardoya, Concha. Verdad, belleza y expresión: letras angloamericanas. Barcelona: Hispano Americana, 1967, 187-215: ‘Eugene O’Neill y la luz del expresionismo’

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